Monday, 4 October 2010
Sunday, 3 October 2010
A study of the use of ICT for teaching and learning in the practice of NQTs – how one ITT provider is attempting to instil good practice in trainee teachers.
Thursday, 9 September 2010
One of the main benefits of attending conference is the opportunity to chat to colleagues who have similar interests, issues and concerns. Sometimes informal ‘off-piste’ discussions develop into informal meetings.
I was involved in such an ‘off-piste’ discussion last Tuesday evening at ALT-C 2010. A number of colleagues gathered to discuss the issue of lecture capture, its implementation, and problems such as staff concerns and legalities. We also visited topics such as the future of HE in the UK, and the dangers of expecting too much of the international market for students, and what exactly is the role of a learning technologist?
One interesting point about lecture capture: I realized that the captured lecture doesn’t need to be an hour long, or any uniform period of time. Thanks to Andrew (forgot surname, but I’m working on it) – who suggested that only the ‘nugget’ of content is all that is needed – and that padding to make in up to an hour is ditched.
Off off piste (not a double negative, but further away from the initial topic of our meeting) was hearing about the progress Nigeria has made in its HE system. We also chatted about our roles: are we learning technologists, instructional designers, course advisers, pedagods (don’t ask) or administrators?
If anyone is interested in further discussions about lecture capture, email me – there may be a group starting to chat these issues through.
(posted from the back of a pool car on the way back from ALT-C 2010)
Tuesday, 7 September 2010
Thursday, 10 June 2010
Friday, 19 February 2010
I’m a 40iiish graduate of a “New” university of the 1960’s (East Anglia), who gained a BSc in Computer Science, worked for about 20 years in industry before training to become a classroom ICT teacher in 2002. After 5 years in the classroom, I joined Edge Hill as a learning technologist (2007). In 2010 I gained my MA in e-learning. Given this wide and varied background, my philosophy of teaching, my “Personal Pedagogy”, should be similarly varied. And indeed it is.
I am reminded of the SOLSTICE model of teaching and learning that requires the practitioner to consider the Purpose of the teaching and the Audience it is intended for – these two considerations will assist in the selection of Form, or in this case, Pedagogy.
For example – consider two courses in health – first, teaching first year students nurses cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, second, teaching experienced practitioners new approaches to an objective analysis of post-operative patient status. For the first, considering the purpose, to TELL students the ideal way to resuscitate patients and the audience, a collection of novice trainees, the form I would use is an instructivist approach. Further reinforcement of this approach would be to consider:
- Guidelines: Formal procedures exist and loom large in the workspace. These guidelines have been condensed out of empirical research from health workers and academics, professional associations and government publications.
- There is little debate on what is the best way of resuscitation – though guidelines can change, they have changed very infrequently.
- Failure to follow set procedures will make institutions, services and individuals liable for any (real or perceived) damage.
I also wouldn’t want to crowd an already overflowing curriculum with notions of “Let’s explore the best way to …”
This approach has been referred to as the “Sage on the Stage” style (King, 1993), a transmissive, behaviourist or instructivist approach that has been the traditional pedagogy of teaching in HE (Kahn, 1997), though perhaps more at early undergraduate levels than later in students’ university careers.
For the second scenario I would begin with an exploration of the purpose and audience. The purpose of this course is to get the audience (experienced operating department practitioners) to understand the complexities and nuances of post operative patient assessment, and in particular be alerted to the twin dangers of relying on subjective assessment, and, on the other hand, be too reliant on objective assessment systems. The latter concern reminds me of the phrase from the anonymous researcher:
“ … numbers are good, though on their own they cannot tell the whole story …”
The anonymous researcher
Unpacking the audience a little, it should be noted that I envisage not only experience professionals with a wealth of experience to call on, but also more than a little scepticism and reticence perhaps born out of a human trait to resist change (Kanter, 1989).
Given this purpose and audience, the form I would select is social constructivism. The material to cover is ripe for a “Debate”, and I envisage the audience to be similarly ready to “Discuss” the topics. I suggest that facilitating this group of individuals would results in a far deeper and more engaged learning experience than presenting them with a procedure identified by others as “Best Practice” – I see the group being able to create their own “Best Practice” (or perhaps the less stringent “Good Practice”) document, and perhaps the journey to this document being part of the assessment mechanism. Such a journey echoes Connolly et al. (2007) who say:
“The assessment focus could be on the learning journey rather than on the ‘summative destination’”.
Unpacking Social Constructivism a little, I view this approach to be one based on the notion of giving information to a group, asking them to discuss and debate around the issues, and as a product of such discussions ‘Knowledge’ (the cognition of the topics being discussed to the extent necessary to be able to deconstruct and reconstruct for different contexts) will be created inside these individuals. To support this pedagogy I would adopt a “Guide on the Side” approach (Hertz-Lazarowitz and Shacher, 1990), where the tutor guides, encourages and facilitates a group of students.
Authors such as Khan (1997:62) emphasise that there is a range between “Sage on the Stage” and “Guide on the Side”, a “ … continuum [that] ranges from didactic to facilitative.”
Moving on from the two scenarios and considering a return to the secondary school system and what my “Personal Pedagogy” may be if I was going back into school to teach groups of 30 or so 11 – 16 year olds, I would be taking a far more constructivst approach. I think this may fly in the face of much of the school pedagogy I experienced. My school experience as a teacher was very much the teacher being seen as the subject matter expert, and the pupils being expected to listen to the “Sage”, and input little to the lessons; though to be fair there were small (and growing) pockets of practice where contributions from the pupils was increasingly being seen as an extremely effective learning mechanism for the whole class. I would try to take notions of learner engagement, empowerment, knowledge construction, and moreover social constructivism into the school curriculum. Initial thoughts would be to specify topics of study for a term, and then to get the pupils to decide how best they can learn about these. Alarm bells may be ringing in some heads, especially if one has experience of Ofsted, and is perhaps aware of the damaging attacks institutions like Summerhill School was subject to in the 1990’s (Andresen et al., 1995), being placed on a secret “Hit List” of institutions that Ofsted tried to undermine (but failed: BBC, 2000). Against this backdrop, I would still try to get pupils to design their own lessons, own examples of application of data, own homework, own learning outcomes and, perhaps most contentiously, their own assessment mechanisms. Perhaps this approach may yield a different curriculum, one more in tune with the needs of employers, society, though most importantly the learners themselves in this 21st century.
Perhaps before embarking on this approach, a pre-course history lesson in the attacks and tinkering with the education system (Cuban 2001) has been subject to since, well, since for ever, may be useful. Once pupils have been educated to question the education system, perhaps they may be more inspired to design their own?
Andresen, L., Boud, D. and Cohen, R. (1995) Experience-based learning. Understanding adult education and training, 207-219.
BBC News. (2000) Summerhill closure threat lifted. http://news.bbc.co.uk./1/hi/education/688152.stm [accessed 12-01-2010].
Connolly, M., Jones, C. and Jones, N. (2007) Managing collaboration across further and higher education: a case in practice. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 31 (2) 159-169.
Cuban, L. (2001) Underused and oversold: Computers in the classroom.Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. and Shachar, H. (1990) Teachers' verbal behavior in cooperative and whole-class instruction. In: S. Sharan (eds) Cooperative Learning. Praeger. 77-94.
Kanter, R. M. (1989) When giants learn to dance. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Khan, B. H. (1997) Web-based Instruction. Educational Technology Pubns.
King, A., Learning, P. A. and Questioning, G. R. P. (1993) From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41 (1) 30-35.
If I’ve missed a reference, it’s likely to be listed here: http://dbcallaghan.blogspot.com/2010/02/current-reference-list.html
Friday, 12 February 2010
Abrams, D. E., & Hogg, M. A. (1990). Social identity theory: Constructive and critical advances. Springer-Verlag Publishing.
Adelman, M. B. (1988). Cross-cultural adjustment: A theoretical perspective on social support. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12(3), 183–204.
Adler, P. S. (1975). The transitional experience: An alternative view of culture shock. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15(4), 13–23.
Ahmad, M., Aftab, S., Ali, I., & Hameed, N. (2017). Hybrid Tools and Techniques for Sentiment Analysis: A Review. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, 8(4), 6.
Allport, F. H. (1954). The structuring of events: Outline of a general theory with applications to psychology. Psychological Review, 61(5), 281.
Altbach, P. G. (2004). Globalisation and the university: Myths and realities in an unequal world. Tertiary Education & Management, 10(1), 3–25.
Altbach, P. G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L. E. (2009). Trends in global higher education: Tracking an academic revolution.
Amoh, K. O. (1984). Newly arrived foreign students at a US university: Their adjustment difficulties and coping strategies. University of Minnesota.
An ethnographic study of the friendship patterns of international students in England: An attempt to recreate home through conational interaction—ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 April 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883035509000615
Anderson, V. (2013). Research methods in human resource management: Investigating a business issue. Kogan Page Publishers.
Arias, E. D. (2006). The Dynamics of Criminal Governance: Networks and Social Order in Rio de Janeiro. Journal of Latin American Studies, 38(2), 293–325. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022216X06000721
Arnold, K. E., & Pistilli, M. D. (2012). Course signals at Purdue: Using learning analytics to increase student success. 267–270.
Arthur, N. (2004). Counseling International Students. Springer.
Baciu, L. E., Dinca, M., Lazar, T., & Sandvin, J. T. (2016). Exploring the social relations of Roma employability: The case of rural segregated communities in Romania. Journal of Comparative Social Work, 11(1).
Baksi, C. (2018, March 20). Denisa Gannon: ‘Roma people are not getting justice’. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/mar/20/denisa-gannon-roma-people-not-getting-justice-solicitor
Banks, J. A. (2001). An Introduction to Multicultural Education (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Barley, S. R., Bechky, B. A., & Milliken, F. J. (2017). The Changing Nature of Work: Careers, Identities, and Work Lives in the 21 st Century. Academy of Management Discoveries, 3(2), 111–115. https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2017.0034
Barna, L. (1983). The stress factor in intercultural relations. Handbook of Intercultural Training, 2, 19–49.
Barnham, C. (2015). Quantitative and qualitative research: Perceptual foundations. International Journal of Market Research, 57(6), 837–854.
Baron, L. (2006). The changing world of international students. National Education Association.
Barron, P. (2006). Stormy outlook? Domestic students’ impressions of international students at an Australian university. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 6(2), 5–22.
Barton, G., Hartwig, K., & Le, A. H. (2019). International Students’ Perceptions of Workplace Experiences in Australian Study Programs: A Large-Scale Survey. Journal of Studies in International Education, 23(2), 248–264.
Baskarada, S. (2014). Qualitative case study guidelines. Baškarada, S.(2014). Qualitative Case Studies Guidelines. The Qualitative Report, 19(40), 1–25.
Beluschi-Fabeni, G., Leggio, D. V., & Matras, Y. (2019). A lost generation? Racialization and stalled social mobility in a group of Roma migrants in the UK. Migration Studies, 7(2), 180–200. https://doi.org/10.1093/migration/mny003
Bennett, J. (1986). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural competence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 421–443.
Bennett, L. (2020, January 8). Interview at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine [Personal communication].
Bentham, J. (1791). Panopticon Or the Inspection House. T. Payne.
Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697–712.
Bierwiaczonek, K., & Waldzus, S. (2016a). Socio-Cultural Factors as Antecedents of Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Expatriates, International Students, and Migrants: A Review. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116644526
Bierwiaczonek, K., & Waldzus, S. (2016b). Socio-Cultural Factors as Antecedents of Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Expatriates, International Students, and Migrants: A Review. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(6), 767–817. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116644526
Birks, M., & Mills, J. (2011). Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide (1 edition). Sage Publications Ltd.
Birks, M., & Mills, J. (2015). Grounded theory: A practical guide (Second edition). SAGE.
Bista, K., & Glass, C. (n.d.). Journal of International Students, 2018 Vol. 8(3). OJED/STAR.
Black, J. S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 291–317.
Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Vol. 1: Cognitive domain. New York: McKay, 20, 24.
B.Miles, M., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (Second Edition edition). SAGE Publications, Inc.
Bobakova, D., Dankulincova Veselska, Z., Babinska, I., Klein, D., Madarasova Geckova, A., Cislakova, L., & the HEPA-META team. (2015). Differences between Roma and non-Roma in how social support from family and friends helps to overcome health care accessibility problems. International Journal for Equity in Health, 14(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-015-0165-z
Bochner, A. P. (1981). On the efficacy of openness in close relationships. Annals of the International Communication Association, 5(1), 109–124.
Bochner, S. (1986). Coping with unfamiliar cultures: Adjustment or culture learning? Australian Journal of Psychology, 38(3), 347–358.
Bochner, S., McLeod, B. M., & Lin, A. (1977). Friendship patterns of overseas students: A functional model. International Journal of Psychology, 12(4), 277–294.
Bond, P. (2003). Cities, social movements and scale-politics in an era of ‘globalisation’. Ambiguous Restructuring of Post-Apartheid Cape Town: The Spatial Forms of Socio-Political Change, 13–54.
Bonk, C. J. (2009). The World is Open: How Web Technology is Revolutionizing Education. Jossey Bass.
Bordia, S., Bordia, P., Milkovitz, M., Shen, Y., & Restubog, S. L. D. (2018). What do international students really want? An exploration of the content of international students’ psychological contract in business education. Studies in Higher Education, 1–15.
Bourdieu, P. (1983). The field of cultural production, or: The economic world reversed. Poetics, 12(4–5), 311–356.
Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. Stanford university press.
Bourdieu, P. (1998). Acts of resistance. New Press New York.
Bourdieu, P. (1999a). Job insecurity is everywhere now. Acts of Resistance: Against the Tyranny of the Market, 81–88.
Bourdieu, P. (1999b). The abdication of the state. The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society, 181–188.
Bourdieu, P. (1999c). The weight of the world: Social suffering and impoverishment. Polity Press.
Bourdieu, P., Accardo, A., & Emanuel, S. (1999). The weight of the world: Social suffering in contemporary society. Alhoda UK.
Bourdieu, P., & Nice, R. (1998). Acts of resistance: Against the tyranny of the market. New Press New York.
Bourne, J., & Moore, J. C. (2003). Elements of Quality Online Education: Practice and Direction. Olin College - Sloan-C.
Bourne, P. G. (1975). The Chinese student—Acculturation and mental illness. Psychiatry, 38(3), 269–277.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss v. 3 (Vol. 1). Random House.
Bradley, H. (2016). Whose flexibility? British employees’ responses to flexible capitalism. In Flexible Organizations and the New Working Life (pp. 95–112). Routledge.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. Sage.
Brockbank, A., McGill, I., & Beech, N. (Eds.). (2002). Reflective Learning in Practice (1 edition). Routledge.
Brook, C., & Abbott, C. (2020). Facilitating the facilitators of action learning in China: Practices and prospects. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 17(2), 200–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767333.2019.1646208
Brook, C., Pedler, M., & Burgoyne, J. (2012a). Some debates and challenges in the literature on action learning: The state of the art since Revans. Human Resource Development International, 15(3), 269–282.
Brook, C., Pedler, M., & Burgoyne, J. (2012b). Some debates and challenges in the literature on action learning: The state of the art since Revans. Human Resource Development International, 15(3), 269–282.
Brown, L. (2008a). The incidence of study-related stress in international students in the initial stage of the international sojourn.
Brown, L. (2008b). The Incidence of Study-Related Stress in International Students in the Initial Stage of the International Sojourn. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(1), 5–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306291587
Brown, L. (2009). An ethnographic study of the friendship patterns of international students in England: An attempt to recreate home through conational interaction. International Journal of Educational Research, 48(3), 184–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2009.07.003
Brown, L., & Holloway, I. (2008). The adjustment journey of international postgraduate students at an English university: An ethnographic study. Journal of Research in International Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240908091306
Brown, P., Dwyer, P. J., & Scullion, L. (2013a). The Limits of Inclusion?: Exploring the views of Roma and non Roma in six European Union Member States.
Brown, P., Dwyer, P. J., & Scullion, L. C. (2013b). The limits of inclusion? Exploring the views of Roma and non Roma in six European union member states: Executive summary.
Brunton, M., & Jeffrey, L. (2014). Identifying factors that influence the learner empowerment of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 43, 321–334.
Bryman, A. (2003). Quantity and quality in social research. Routledge.
Burgess, J. (2018). Call for Papers: Special Issue of International Journal of Human Resource Management. International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Callaghan, D. (2013, November 1). A Tidal Wave of Discussion … How active discussion produced outstanding* results. Learning Edge. https://blogs.edgehill.ac.uk/learningedge/2013/11/01/a-tidal-wave-of-discussion/
Callaghan, D. (2014, March 31). Alas Prescott and Ellis | Learning Edge. https://blogs.edgehill.ac.uk/learningedge/2014/03/31/alas-prescott-and-ellis/
Callaghan, D. (2016, December 5). Peer review: How to enhance learning without increasing your workload. Musings on the Use of Technology in Teaching and Learning. http://dbcallaghan.blogspot.com/2016/12/peer-review-how-to-enhance-learning.html
Callaghan, D. (2018, May 30). What is Case Based Learning (CBL), Problem Based Learning (PBL), & Scenario Based Learning (SBL)? Musings on the Use of Technology in Teaching and Learning. http://dbcallaghan.blogspot.com/2018/05/what-is-case-based-learning-cbl-problem.html
Callaghan, D. B. (2013, January 11). Learning Edge; Edge Hill’s virtual learning environment. A Tidal Wave of Discussion … How Active Discussion Produced Outstanding Results. https://blogs.edgehill.ac.uk/learningedge/2013/11/01/a-tidal-wave-of-discussion/
Cant, A. G. (2004). Internationalizing the business curriculum: Developing intercultural competence. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), 177–182.
Cantwell, B. (2019). Are international students cash cows? Examining the relationship between new international undergraduate enrollments and institutional revenue at public colleges and universities in the US. Journal of International Students, 512, 512–525.
Carlson, J. S., & Widaman, K. F. (1988). The effects of study abroad during college on attitudes toward other cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12(1), 1–17.
Charles, N., & James, E. (2003). Gender and work orientations in conditions of job insecurity. The British Journal of Sociology, 54(2), 239–257.
Chen, C. P. (1999). Professional issues: Common stressors among international college students: Research and counseling implications. Journal of College Counseling, 2(1), 49–65.
Chen, S.-F. (1996). Learning Multiculturalism from the Experience of International Students: The Experience of International Students in a Teacher Training Program.
Chien, Y.-Y. G. (2016). After six decades: Applying the U-curve hypothesis to the adjustment of international postgraduate students. Journal of Research in International Education, 15(1), 32–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240916639398
Cho, J., & Yu, H. (2015). Roles of university support for international students in the United States: Analysis of a systematic model of university identification, university support, and psychological well-being. Journal of Studies in International Education, 19(1), 11–27.
Christopher, S., Watts, V., McCormick, A. K. H. G., & Young, S. (2008). Building and maintaining trust in a community-based participatory research partnership. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), 1398–1406.
Church, A. T. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91(3), 540.
Coelho, G. V. (1962). Personal growth and educational development through working and studying abroad. Journal of Social Issues, 18(1), 55–67.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2002). Research methods in education. routledge.
Coleman, J. (1990). Social capital. Foundations of social theory. Coleman, James (Comp), Cambridge, Massachusets. The Belknap Press of Harward University Press. Links.
Collings, D. G., & Isichei, M. (2018). The shifting boundaries of global staffing: Integrating global talent management, alternative forms of international assignments and non-employees into the discussion. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(1), 165–187.
Collins, H., & Callaghan, D. (2018). The role of Action Learning in supporting cross-cultural adaptation of international students. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 15(3), 267–275.
Corcoran, L. (2015, January 27). Learning Edge; Edge Hill’s virtual learning environment. Technologies Are an “Absolute Lifeline” for Our Students! https://blogs.edgehill.ac.uk/learningedge/2015/01/27/technologiesstudentlifeline/
Cormier, D., Stewart, B., Siemens, G., & McAuley, A. (2010). What is a MOOC? https://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:20497
Costello, J. (2015). Students’ stories of studying abroad: Reflections upon return. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 50.
Couldry, N. (2005). The individual point of view: Learning from Bourdieu’s The Weight of the World. Cultural Studies? Critical Methodologies, 5(3), 354–372.
Cozma, T., Cucos, C., & Momanu, M. (2000). The education of Roma children in Romania: Description, difficulties, solutions. Intercultural Education, 11(3), 281–288.
Crai, E. (2015). Early and Forced Marriages in Roma Communities. Country Report: Romania – 2015. CoE CAHROM. https://cs.coe.int/team20/cahrom/9th%20CAHROM%20Plenary%20meeting/Item%2009%20-%20Early%20and%20Forced%20Marriages%20in%20Roma%20communities%20in%20Romania.docx
Cromarty, H. (2017a). Gypsies and Travellers (p. 70). House of Commons Library. https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CBP-8083#fullreport
Cromarty, H. (2017b). House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08083, 8 September 2017: Gypsies and Travellers.
Cultural Transitions in Higher Education: Individual Adaptation, Transformation and Engagement | Emerald Insight. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 April 2020, from https://hes32-ctp.trendmicro.com:443/wis/clicktime/v1/query?url=https%3a%2f%2fwww.emerald.com%2finsight%2fcontent%2fdoi%2f10.1108%2fS0749%2d7423%282012%290000017012%2ffull%2fhtml&umid=a3540600-2405-4680-bb72-ac23a1eb2af5&auth=768f192bba830b801fed4f40fb360f4d1374fa7c-57f0010358c2bb5a878f26250f13afc8a5e52e9c
Cunliffe, A. L. (2011). Crafting qualitative research: Morgan and Smircich 30 years on. Organizational Research Methods, 14(4), 647–673.
Cunliffe, A. L., & Scaratti, G. (2017). Embedding impact in engaged research: Developing socially useful knowledge through dialogical sensemaking. British Journal of Management, 28(1), 29–44.
Cushner, K., & Karim, A. (2004). Study Abroad At. Handbook of Intercultural Training, 289.
Dailey-Strand, C. (2017). International student experience of cultural challenge. Liverpool John Moores University.
Daroesman, S., Looi, K., & Butler, D. (2005). Survey of final year international students on their experience of The University of Melbourne. Melbourne: University Planning Office, The University of Melbourne.
Davis, G. F. (2016). The vanishing American corporation: Navigating the hazards of a new economy. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
De Stefano, V. (2015). The rise of the just-in-time workforce: On-demand work, crowdwork, and labor protection in the gig-economy. Comp. Lab. L. & Pol’y J., 37, 471.
Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241–266.
Delaware. (2020). Our History | UD Institute for Global Studies. https://www.udel.edu/global/study-abroad/history/
Deloitte Access Economics. (2016a). The value of international education to Australia. Australian Government Department of Education and Training Canberra.
Deloitte Access Economics. (2016b). The value of international education to Australia. Australian Government, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
Deutsch, S. E. (1970). International education and exchange: A sociological analysis. University Press Book Service.
Di Pietro, G. (2013). Do study abroad programs enhance the employability of graduates? Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit Institute for the Study of Labor.
Doherty, A., & Misener, K. (2008). Community sport. Sport and Social Capital, 113.
Duberley, J., Carmichael, F., & Szmigin, I. (2014). Exploring Women’s Retirement: Continuity, Context and Career Transition. Gender, Work & Organization, 21(1), 71–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12013
Duff, P. A., & Bell, J. S. (2002). Narrative research in TESOL: Narrative inquiry: More than just telling stories. TESOL Quarterly, 36(2), 207–213.
Duffy, M. E. (2001). A critique of cultural education in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(4), 487–495.
Duggan, J., Sherman, U., Carbery, R., & McDonnell, A. (2019). Algorithmic management and app‐work in the gig economy: A research agenda for employment relations and HRM. Human Resource Management Journal.
Easterby-Smith, M., Malina, D., & Yuan, L. (1995). How culture-sensitive is HRM? A comparative analysis of practice in Chinese and UK companies. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6(1), 31–59.
Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Jackson, P. R. (2015). Management and business research. Sage.
Edmonstone, J., Lawless, A., & Pedler, M. (2019). Leadership development, wicked problems and action learning: Provocations to a debate. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 16(1), 37–51.
Educause. (2012, February 1). 7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms. https://library.educause.edu/resources/2012/2/7-things-you-should-know-about-flipped-classrooms
Ellerman, D. (2005). Labour migration: A developmental path or a low-level trap? Development in Practice, 15(5), 617–630.
Enders, J. (2004). Higher education, internationalisation, and the nation-state: Recent developments and challenges to governance theory. Higher Education, 47(3), 361–382.
Eriksson, P., & Kovalainen, A. (2015). Qualitative methods in business research: A practical guide to social research. Sage.
ERRC. (2007). The Glass Box: Exclusion of Roma From Employment (p. 98). European Roma Rights Centre. http://www.errc.org/reports-and-submissions/the-glass-box-exclusion-of-roma-from-employment
Evans, N., Wilson, F. M., Housley, H., Kimoto, L., Silver, T. J., Cox, L., Ebner, J., & Kessler, G. (2009). Orientation. In M. Andrade & N. Evans (Eds.), International students: Strengthening a critical resource (pp. 103–131). Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Farmer, P. (2004). An Anthropology of Structural Violence. Current Anthropology, 45(3), 305–325. https://doi.org/10.1086/382250
Farmer, P. E., Nizeye, B., Stulac, S., & Keshavjee, S. (2006). Structural Violence and Clinical Medicine. PLOS Medicine, 3(10), e449. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030449
Farmer, P., & Sen, M. (2005). Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. University of California Press.
Favell, A. (2008). The new face of East–West migration in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(5), 701–716.
Fenwick, T. J. (2003). Emancipatory potential of action learning: A critical analysis. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(6), 619–632.
Flowers, N. M. (1992a). Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 8(2), 214–216. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X1992000200018
Flowers, N. M. (1992b). Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 8(2), 214–216. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X1992000200018
Forbes-Mewett, H., & Sawyer, A.-M. (2019). International students and mental health. Journal of International Students, 2016 Vol. 6 (3), 6(3), 661–677.
Freedman, E. (2010). Media, tourism, environment, and cultural issues in Australia: A case study of a study abroad program. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 9(2), 87–95.
Freire, P. (1997). Mentoring the mentor: A critical dialogue with Paulo Freire (Vol. 60). Peter Lang Pub Incorporated.
Friberg, J. H. (2018). Poverty, networks, resistance: The economic sociology of Roma migration for begging. Migration Studies.
Fritsch, H. (n.d.). TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC). 43.
Fritsch, H. (1997a). Host Contacted, Waiting for Reply. Fernuniv.
Fritsch, H. (1997b). Host Contacted, Waiting for Reply.
Fritsch, H. (1997c). Host Contacted, Waiting for Reply. Fernuniversität. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED407603.pdf
Fulbright. (2019, December 14). About Us | Fulbright Scholar Program. Fulbright. https://web.archive.org/web/20191214024629/https:/www.cies.org/about-us
Furedi, F. (2004). Therapy culture: Cultivating vulnerability in an uncertain age. Psychology Press.
Furnham, A. (1988). The Adjustment of Sojourners. In Y. Y. Kim & W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Cross-cultural adaptation: Current Approaches (pp. 42–61). Sage.
Furnham, A. (2004). Education and culture shock. Psychologist, 17(1), 16.
Fusch, P. I., & Ness, L. R. (2015). Are we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 20(9), 1408–1416.
Gallova, V., Palasinski, M., Shortland, N., Humann, M., & Grieve, L. B. (2018). Anxiety about digital security and terrorism, and support for counter-terror measures. Safer Communities, 17(3), 156–166.
Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, Peace, and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167–191.
Galtung, J. (1990). Cultural Violence. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3), 291–305.
Gandini, A. (2019). Labour process theory and the gig economy. Human Relations, 72(6), 1039–1056.
Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61–72.
Gass, S. M., & Varonis, E. M. (1991). Miscommunication in non-native speaker discourse. In N. Coupland, H. Giles, & J. M. Wiemann (Eds.), ‘ Miscommunication’ and problematic talk (Vol. 11, pp. 121–145). Sage.
Gautam, C., Lowery, C. L., Mays, C., & Durant, D. (2016a). Challenges for global learners: A qualitative study of the concerns and difficulties of international students. Journal of International Students, 6(2), 501–526.
Gautam, C., Lowery, C. L., Mays, C., & Durant, D. (2016b). Challenges for global learners: A qualitative study of the concerns and difficulties of international students. Journal of International Students, 6(2), 501–526.
Gautam, V., & Batra, S. (2011). Organisation Development Systems. Concept Publishing Company.
Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory Chicago. Adeline, USA.
Glesne, C., & Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers. White Plains, NY. Longman.
Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597–607.
Goodfellow, D. J. (2016, July 1). Brexit: What will it mean for universities, students and academics? The Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2016/07/01/brexit-what-will-it-mean-for-universities-students-and-academics/
Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., Wood, A., Barnard, H., Hjorth, I., & D Simon, P. (2017). The risks and rewards of online gig work at the global margins.
Grove, C. L., & Torbiörn, I. (1985). A new conceptualization of intercultural adjustment and the goals of training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9(2), 205–233.
Gudykunst, W. B. (1998). Applying anxiety\uncertainty management (AUM) Theory to intercultural adjustment training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 227–250.
Gullahorn, J. T., & Gullahorn, J. E. (1963a). An extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues, 19(3), 33–47.
Gullahorn, J. T., & Gullahorn, J. E. (1963b). An extension of the U‐curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues, 19(3), 33–47.
Gullekson, N. L., & Tucker, M. L. (2013). An Examination of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Intercultural Growth for Students Studying Abroad. Journal of the Academy of Business Education, 14.
Gumperz, J. J., & Tannen, D. (1979). Individual and social differences in language use. In C. J. Fillmore, D. Kempler, & W. S. Wang (Eds.), Individual differences in language ability and language behavior (pp. 305–325). Elsevier.
Guthrie, G. M. (1979). A cross-cultural odyssey: Some personal reflections. In A. J. Marsella, R. G. Tharp, & T. J. Ciborowski (Eds.), Perspectives on cross-cultural psychology (pp. 349–368). Academic Press.
Guy, W. (2011). Roma inclusion at the crossroads: Can the lessons from PHARE be learned. ERRC Roma Rights.
Hage, G. (2013). Eavesdropping on Bourdieu’s philosophers. Thesis Eleven, 114(1), 76–93.
Hancock, I. F. (2002). We are the Romani people. University of Hertfordshire Press.
Hancock, I. F. (2005). Beyond poverty, beyond Europe. SAIS Review of International Affairs, 25(2), 181–185.
Haslam, S. A., Powell, C., & Turner, J. (2000). Social identity, self‐categorization, and work motivation: Rethinking the contribution of the group to positive and sustainable organisational outcomes. Applied Psychology, 49(3), 319–339.
Haslberger, A., & Brewster, C. (2007). Domains of expatriate adjustment with special emphasis on work. Cadiz University’s VI. International Workshop on Human Resource Management, Jerez, Spain.
Hayes, R. L., & Lin, H. (1994). Coming to America: Developing social support systems for international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 22(1), 7–16.
Hendrickson, B., Rosen, D., & Aune, R. K. (2011). An analysis of friendship networks, social connectedness, homesickness, and satisfaction levels of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(3), 281–295.
Herakova, L. L. (2009). Identity, Communication, Inclusion: The Roma and (New) Europe. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 2(4), 279–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513050903177318
Hewstone, M., & Swart, H. (2011). Fifty-odd years of inter-group contact: From hypothesis to integrated theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50(3), 374–386.
House, L. E., Stiffman, A. R., & Brown, E. (2006). Unraveling cultural threads: A qualitative study of culture and ethnic identity among urban Southwestern American Indian youth parents and elders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(4), 393–407.
Howard, J. (2017). Nonstandard work arrangements and worker health and safety. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 60(1), 1–10.
Hsieh, E. (2007). Interpreters as co-diagnosticians: Overlapping roles and services between providers and interpreters. Social Science & Medicine, 64(4), 924–937.
‘https://hes32-ctp.trendmicro.com:443/wis/clicktime/v1/query?url=https%3a%2f%2fwww.tuc.org.uk%2fsites%2fdefault%2ffiles%2fthe%2dgig%2dis%2dup.pdf%e2%80%99%e2%80%94Google&umid=a3540600-2405-4680-bb72-ac23a1eb2af5&auth=768f192bba830b801fed4f40fb360f4d1374fa7c-527545fc5abd31c28b215ab172c6d58dcfae023c Search. (n.d.-a). Retrieved 16 January 2020, from https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=%22https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tuc.org.uk%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fthe-gig-is-up.pdf%22
‘https://hes32-ctp.trendmicro.com:443/wis/clicktime/v1/query?url=https%3a%2f%2fwww.tuc.org.uk%2fsites%2fdefault%2ffiles%2fthe%2dgig%2dis%2dup.pdf%e2%80%99%e2%80%94Google&umid=a3540600-2405-4680-bb72-ac23a1eb2af5&auth=768f192bba830b801fed4f40fb360f4d1374fa7c-527545fc5abd31c28b215ab172c6d58dcfae023c Search. (n.d.-b). Retrieved 16 January 2020, from https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=%22https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tuc.org.uk%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fthe-gig-is-up.pdf%22
Huang, K. (1977). Campus mental health: The foreigner at your desk. Journal of the American College Health Association, 25(3), 216–219.
Hussey, J., & Hussey, R. (1997). Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students. Macmillan Business. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UVu1QgAACAAJ
Huws, U., Spencer, N., & Joyce, S. (2016). Crowd work in Europe: Preliminary results from a survey in the UK, Sweden, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands.
IIE. (2014, February 5). History | Who We Are | Institute of International Education. https://web.archive.org/web/20140205165423/http:/www.iie.org/Who-We-Are/History
Interview—Johan Galtung. (2014, May 27). E-International Relations. https://www.e-ir.info/2014/05/27/interview-johan-galtung/
Jacobson, E. H. (1963). Sojourn research: A definition of the field. Journal of Social Issues, 19(3), 123–129.
James, R., & Devlin, M. (2001). Evaluation of the international student experience 2000, report for the international student centre.
Jon, J.-E. (2013). Realizing internationalization at home in Korean higher education: Promoting domestic students’ interaction with international students and intercultural competence. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(4), 455–470.
Jones, E. (2017). Problematising and reimagining the notion of ‘international student experience’. Studies in Higher Education, 42(5), 933–943.
Jones, M. G., & Brader-Araje, L. (2002). The impact of constructivism on education: Language, discourse, and meaning. American Communication Journal, 5(3), 1–10.
Kahn, H. E., & Agnew, M. (2017). Global learning through difference: Considerations for teaching, learning, and the internationalization of higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(1), 52–64.
Kalleberg, A. L. (2011). Good jobs, bad jobs: The rise of polarized and precarious employment systems in the United States, 1970s-2000s. Russell Sage Foundation.
Kerr, R., & Robinson, S. (2009). The hysteresis effect as creative adaptation of the habitus: Dissent and transition to the ‘corporate’in post-Soviet Ukraine. Organization, 16(6), 829–853.
Kim, J., Choi, J., & Tatar, B. (2017). English-Medium Instruction and Intercultural Sensitivity: A Korean Case Study. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(5), 467–482. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315317720767
Kim, Y. Y. (1988). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. Multilingual Matters.
Kim, Y. Y. (1998). On theorizing intercultural communication. In Theories in intercultural communication (pp. 11–21). SAGE.
Kim, Y. Y. (2001). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Sage.
Kim, Y. Y., & Gudykunst, W. B. (1988). Cross-Cultural Adaptation: Current Approaches. (Vol. 11). ERIC.
King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41(1), 30–35.
King, N., Horrocks, C., & Brooks, J. (2018). Interviews in qualitative research. SAGE Publications Limited.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75–86.
Klimovský, D., Želinský, T., Matlovičová, K., & Mušinka, A. (2016). Roma settlements and poverty in Slovakia: Different policy approaches of the state, local governments, and NGOs. Anthropological Notebooks, 22(1).
Knight, J., Wit, H. de, & European Association of International Education. (1997). Internationalisation of higher education in Asia Pacific countries. European Association for International Education, in cooperation with IDP Education Australia and the Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 1.
Kornberger, M., & Clegg, S. R. (2004). Bringing space back in: Organizing the generative building. Organization Studies, 25(7), 1095–1114.
Koulish, R. E. (2003). Attitudes towards Roma minority rights in Hungary: A case of ethnic Doxa, and the contested legitimization of Roma inferiority. Nationalities Papers, 31(3), 327–345.
Kowalski, T. H., & Loretto, W. (2017). Well-being and HRM in the changing workplace.
Larson, C. L. (1997). Re-presenting the subject: Problems in personal narrative inquiry. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 10(4), 455–470.
Lawless, A. (2008). Action learning as legitimate peripheral participation. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 5(2), 117–129.
Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53(3), 381–409.
Lee, J., & Zhou, M. (2004). Asian American youth: Culture, identity and ethnicity. Routledge.
Lee, M. (2015). The Complete History of Study Abroad | Go Overseas. https://www.gooverseas.com/blog/history-study-abroad
Leiter, M. P., & Meechan, K. A. (1986). Role structure and burnout in the field of human services. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 22(1), 47–52.
Leonard, S., & Lang, F. (2010). Leadership development via action learning. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(2), 225–240.
Lin, N. (2002). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action (Vol. 19). Cambridge university press.
Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). Revolutions in qualitative research: From just experience to experiencing justice. Journal of Thought, 40(4), 25–40.
Lincoln, Y. S. (2010). “What a long, strange trip it’s been…”: Twenty-five years of qualitative and new paradigm research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(1), 3–9.
Locke, K. (2001). Grounded theory in management research. Sage.
Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. International Social Science Bulletin, 7, 45-51. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(1), 126–131.
Mainiero, L. A., & Sullivan, S. E. (2005). Kaleidoscope careers: An alternate explanation for the “opt-out “revolution. Academy of Management Perspectives, 19(1), 106–123.
Maltbia, T. E., Marsick, V. J., & Ghosh, R. (2014). Executive and Organizational Coaching: A Review of Insights Drawn From Literature to Inform HRD Practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 16(2), 161–183. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422313520474
Marangell, S., Arkoudis, S., & Baik, C. (2018a). Developing a Host Culture for International Students: What Does It Take? Journal of International Students, 8(3), 1440–1458.
Marangell, S., Arkoudis, S., & Baik, C. (2018b). Developing a Host Culture for International Students: What Does It Take? Journal of International Students, 8(3), 1440–1458.
Marginson, S., & Wende, M. van der. (2007). Globalisation and higher education.
Marquardt, M., & Waddill, D. (2004). The power of learning in action learning: A conceptual analysis of how the five schools of adult learning theories are incorporated within the practice of action learning. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 1(2), 185–202.
Mason, J. (2002). Qualitative researching (2nd ed.). Sage.
Matras, Y. (2014). I Met Lucky People. Penguin.
Mazzolini, M., & Maddison, S. (2007). When to jump in: The role of the instructor in online discussion forums. Computers & Education, 49(2), 193–213.
McDonnell, A., Burgess, J., Carbery, R., & Sherman, U. (2018). Special issue of International Journal of Human Resource Management: Gig work: implications for the employment relationship and human resource management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 0(0), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2018.1495410
McIntyre, J. C., Worsley, J., Corcoran, R., Harrison Woods, P., & Bentall, R. P. (2018). Academic and non-academic predictors of student psychological distress: The role of social identity and loneliness. Journal of Mental Health, 27(3), 230–239.
McIvor, A. (2013). Working lives: Work in Britain since 1945. Macmillan International Higher Education.
McKee, A., & Markless, S. (2017). Using action learning sets to support students managing transition into the clinical learning environment in a UK medical school. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 14(3), 275–285.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. SAGE.
MINT. (2020). Welcome to the Motivational Interviewing Website! | Motivational Interviewing Network of Trainers (MINT). https://motivationalinterviewing.org/
Mirga-Kruszelnicka, A. (2017). THE POWER OF NARRATIVES. WHY CRAFTING A COUNTER-NARRATIVE ON ROMA CAN SHAPE THE FUTURE OF EUROPE. https://gorki.de/de/the-power-of-narratives-why-crafting-a-counter-narrative-on-roma-can-shape-the-future-of-europe
Miskovic, M. (2007). The construction of ethnic identity of Balkan Muslim immigrants: A narrativization of personal experiences. Qualitative Report, 12(3), 514–546.
Moghaddam, J. M. (2011). Perceived effectiveness of business internships: Student expectations, experiences, and personality traits. International Journal of Management, 28(4), 287.
Mol, J. (2016). Emo. Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle. https://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopedia-of-the-medieval-chronicle/*-SIM_00933
Montgomery, C., & McDowell, L. (2009). Social networks and the international student experience: An international community of practice? Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(4), 455–466.
Moore, S., & Newsome, K. (2018a). Paying for free delivery: Dependent self-employment as a measure of precarity in parcel delivery. Work, Employment and Society, 32(3), 475–492.
Moore, S., & Newsome, K. (2018b). Paying for free delivery: Dependent self-employment as a measure of precarity in parcel delivery. Work, Employment and Society, 32(3), 475–492.
Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 137–144.
Munck, R. (2013). The Precariat: A view from the South. Third World Quarterly, 34(5), 747–762.
Muntaner, C. (2018a). Digital Platforms, Gig Economy, Precarious Employment, and the Invisible Hand of Social Class. International Journal of Health Services, 48(4), 597–600.
Muntaner, C. (2018b). Digital Platforms, Gig Economy, Precarious Employment, and the Invisible Hand of Social Class. International Journal of Health Services, 48(4), 597–600.
Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242–266.
Nicol, D., Thomson, A., & Breslin, C. (2014). Rethinking feedback practices in higher education: A peer review perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39(1), 102–122. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2013.795518
Nilsson, P. A., & Ripmeester, N. (2016). International student expectations: Career opportunities and employability. Journal of International Students, 6(2), 614.
Nystrand, M. (1997). Opening Dialogue: Understanding the Dynamics of Language and Learning in the English Classroom. Language and Literacy Series. ERIC.
Oberg, K. (1960). Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments. Practical Anthropology, 7(4), 177–182.
Oxford. (n.d.). Introduction and history | University of Oxford. Retrieved 1 April 2020, from https://www.ox.ac.uk/about/organisation/history?wssl=1
Paige, R. M. (1990). International students: Cross-cultural psychological perspectives. In R. W. Brislin (Ed.), Applied cross-cultural psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 161–185). Sage Publications.
Parsons, L. R. (2010). The effects of an internationalized university experience on domestic students in the United States and Australia. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(4), 313–334.
Parsons, R. L. (2009). The Effects of an Internationalized University Experience on Domestic Students in the United States and Australia. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(4), 313–334. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315309331390
Peden, T. (2001). Studying abroad: The experience. Abroad View Magazine. http://www.abroadviewmagazine.com/archives/spring_01/studyabroad. html
Pedler, M. (2011). Action learning in practice. Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J., & Brook, C. (2005). What has action learning learned to become? Action Learning: Research and Practice, 2(1), 49–68.
Peplau, L. A., & Perlman, D. (1982). Perspectives on loneliness. Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Current Theory, Research and Therapy, 1–20.
Petriglieri, G., Ashford, S. J., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2018). Agony and ecstasy in the gig economy: Cultivating holding environments for precarious and personalized work identities. Administrative Science Quarterly, 0001839218759646.
Petriglieri, G., & Petriglieri, J. L. (2010). Identity workspaces: The case of business schools. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9(1), 44–60.
Petrova, D. (2003). The Roma: Between a myth and the future. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 70(1), 111–161.
Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 271.
Pittaway, E., Ferguson, B., & Breen, C. (1998). Worth more than gold: The unexpected benefits associated with internationalisation of tertiary education. Outcomes of International Education: Research Findings, 61–72.
Ploner, J. (2017). Resilience, moorings and international student mobilities–Exploring biographical narratives of social science students in the UK. Mobilities, 12(3), 425–444.
Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon and schuster.
Putnam, R. D., & Feldstein, L. (2009). Better together: Restoring the American community. Simon and Schuster.
Quinlan, M. (2012). The ‘pre-invention’of precarious employment: The changing world of work in context. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 23(4), 3–24.
Ramsay, S., Jones, E., & Barker, M. (2007). Relationship between adjustment and support types: Young and mature-aged local and international first year university students. Higher Education, 54(2), 247–265.
Rebolledo-Gomez, C., & Ranchin, J. (2013). How is international student mobility shaping up. Education Indicators In Focus, OECD Report., 26, 2014.
Reed-Danahay, D. (2017). Bourdieu and critical autoethnography: Implications for research, writing, and teaching. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 19(1), 144–154.
Revans, R. W. (1982). What is Action Learning? Journal of Management Development, 1(3), 64–75. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb051529
Revans, R. W. (2011). ABC of action learning. Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Revans, Reg. (1983). ABC of Action Learning (1st ed.). Chartwell-Bratt.
Revans, RW. (1984). The sequence of managerial learning. MCB University Press.
Richards, L., & Morse, J. M. (2007). ‘Coding’ A Users Guide to Qualitative Methods. Sage.
Riessman, C. K. (2005). Narrative analysis. In Narrative, Memory & Everyday Life. University of Huddersfield. http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/4920/2/
Rigg, C., & Trehan, K. (2004). Reflections on working with critical action learning. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 1(2), 149–165.
Rollnick, S., & Miller, W. R. (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(4), 325–334.
Rosenthal, D. A., Russell, J., & Thomson, G. (2007). Social connectedness among international students at an Australian university. Social Indicators Research, 84(1), 71–82.
Russell, J., Rosenthal, D., & Thomson, G. (2010). The international student experience: Three styles of adaptation. Higher Education, 60(2), 235–249.
Russell, J., Thomson, G., & Rosenthal, D. (2008). International student use of university health and counselling services. Higher Education, 56(1), 59–75.
Ryan, R., Dowler, B., Bruce, S., Gamage, S., & Morris, A. (2016). The wellbeing of international students in the city of Sydney.
Sachrajda, A., & Pennington, J. (2013). Britain wants you! Why the UK should commit to increasing international student numbers. Report Published by the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR). Accessed January, 8, 2015.
Salemink, K. (2016). Digital margins: Social and digital exclusion of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 48(6), 1170–1187.
Salmon, G. (2004). E-moderating in higher education. In Distance learning and university effectiveness: Changing educational paradigms for online learning (pp. 55–78). IGI Global.
Salmon, G. (2011). E-Moderating: The Key to Online Teaching and Learning (3rd Edition). Routledge.
Salmon, G., & Wright, P. (2014). Transforming future teaching through ‘Carpe Diem’learning design. Education Sciences, 4(1), 52–63.
Sam, D. L. (2001). Satisfaction with life among international students: An exploratory study. Social Indicators Research, 53(3), 315–337. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007108614571
Sandhu, D. S., & Asrabadi, B. R. (1994). Development of an acculturative stress scale for international students: Preliminary findings. Psychological Reports, 75(1), 435–448.
Sanyal, C. (2018). Learning, action and solutions in action learning: Investigation of facilitation practice using the concept of living theories. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 15(1), 3–17.
Saunders, C. (2008). Double-edged swords? Collective identity and solidarity in the environment movement1. The British Journal of Sociology, 59(2), 227–253. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2008.00191.x
Saunders, M, Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students, 6th edn, sn.
Saunders, Mark, Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students. Pearson Education.
Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C., & Ramia, G. (2008). Loneliness and international students: An Australian study. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(2), 148–180.
Scanlon, L., Rowling, L., & Weber, Z. (2007). ‘You don’t have like an identity… you are just lost in a crowd’: Forming a student identity in the first-year transition to university. Journal of Youth Studies, 10(2), 223–241.
Schartner, A., & Young, T. (2015). Culture Shock or Love at First Sight? Exploring the ‘Honeymoon’ Stage of the International Student Sojourn. In A. H. Fabricius & B. Preisler (Eds.), Transcultural Interaction and Linguistic Diversity in Higher Education: The Student Experience (pp. 12–33). Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137397478_2
Scheper-Hughes, N. (1992). Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in brazil. University of California Press.
Schmitt, M. T., Spears, R., & Branscombe, N. R. (2003). Constructing a minority group identity out of shared rejection: The case of international students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(1), 1–12.
Searle, W., & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14(4), 449–464.
Seddoh, F. K. (2001). Internationalisation of higher education: What for, how and at what cost. International Association of Universities Newsletter, 7(3), 1–3.
Sennett, R. (1998). The corrosion of character: The personal consequences of work in the new capitalism. WW Norton & Company.
Shildrick, T., MacDonald, R., Webster, C., & Garthwaite, K. (2010). The low-pay, no-pay cycle. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Shotter, J. (2010). Situated dialogic action research: Disclosing ‘“beginnings”’for innovative change in organizations. Organizational Research Methods, 13(2), 268–285.
Shu, F., Ahmed, S. F., Pickett, M. L., Ayman, R., & McAbee, S. T. (2020). Social support perceptions, network characteristics, and international student adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 74, 136–148.
Shubin, S. (2011). Travelling as being: Understanding mobility amongst Scottish Gypsy Travellers. Environment and Planning A, 43(8), 1930–1947.
Sibley, D. (1998). Problematizing exclusion: Reflections on space, difference and knowledge. International Planning Studies, 3(1), 93–100.
Silverman, D. (2016). Qualitative research. Sage.
Silverman, H. (2010). Contested cultural heritage: Religion, nationalism, erasure, and exclusion in a global world. Springer.
Simpson, P., & Bourner, T. (2007). What action learning is not in the twenty-first century. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 4(2), 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767330701592797
Siqueira, C. E. (2016). Does Informal Employment Exist in the United States and Other Developed Countries?
Slimbach, R. (2005). The transcultural journey. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 11, 205–230.
Socio-Cultural Factors as Antecedents of Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Expatriates, International Students, and Migrants: A Review—Kinga Bierwiaczonek, Sven Waldzus, 2016. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 April 2020, from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022022116644526
Soria, K. M., & Troisi, J. (2014). Internationalization at home alternatives to study abroad: Implications for students’ development of global, international, and intercultural competencies. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(3), 261–280.
Spencer-Oatey, H. (2013). Maximizing the benefits of international education collaborations: Managing interaction processes. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(3), 244–261.
Spencer-Oatey, H., & Franklin, P. (2009). Intercultural interaction: A multidisciplinary approach to intercultural communication. Springer.
Spencer-Rodgers, J., & McGovern, T. (2002). Attitudes toward the culturally different: The role of intercultural communication barriers, affective responses, consensual stereotypes, and perceived threat. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(6), 609–631.
Spradley, J. (1979a). Asking descriptive questions. The Ethnographic Interview, 1, 44–61.
Spradley, J. (1979b). The ethnographic interview.
Srnicek, N. (2017). The challenges of platform capitalism: Understanding the logic of a new business model. Juncture, 23(4), 254–257.
Standing, G. (2017). Basic income: And how we can make it happen. Penguin UK.
Stanford, J. (2017). The resurgence of gig work: Historical and theoretical perspectives. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(3), 382–401.
Stening, B. W. (1979). Problems in cross-cultural contact: A literature review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 3(3), 269–313.
Stewart, A., & Stanford, J. (2017). Regulating work in the gig economy: What are the options? The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(3), 420–437.
Stonequist, E. V. (1935). The problem of the marginal man. American Journal of Sociology, 41(1), 1–12.
Stonequist, E. V. (1937). The marginal man: A study in personality and culture conflict.
Stott, P. (2016). The perils of a lack of student engagement: Reflections of a “lonely, brave, and rather exposed” online instructor. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(1), 51–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12215
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. Sage publications.
Strauss, P., U-Mackey, A., & Crothers, C. (2014). ‘They drag my marks down!’–challenges faced by lecturers in the allocation of marks for multicultural group projects. Intercultural Education, 25(3), 229–241.
Suurmond, J., Woudstra, A., & Essink-Bot, M.-L. (2016). The interpreter as co-interviewer: The role of the interpreter during interviews in cross-language health research. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 21(3), 172–177.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. CUP Archive.
Tajfel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33(1), 1–39.
Talero, E., & Gaudette, P. (1995). Harnessing information for development: A proposal for a World Bank group vision and strategy. Information Technology for Development, 6(3–4), 145–188.
Tarmizi, H., de Vreede, G.-J., & Zigurs, I. (2007). Leadership challenges in communities of practice: Supporting facilitators via design and technology. International Journal of E-Collaboration (IJeC), 3(1), 18–39.
Tarnovschi, D., Preoteasa, A. M., Pamporov, A., Kabakchieva, P., & Gitano, F. S. (2012). Roma from Romania, Bulgaria, Italy and Spain between Social Inclusion and Migration (p. 90). Soros Foundation Romania. http://comunidadgitana.org/upload/19/58/Roma_in_Romania__Bulgaria__Italy_and_Spain_between_Social_Inclusion_and_Migration._Comparative_St.pdf
Taylor, E. W. (1994). Intercultural competency: A transformative learning process. Adult Education Quarterly, 44(3), 154–174.
Teichler, U. (2004). The changing debate on internationalisation of higher education. Higher Education, 48(1), 5–26.
The Gig is Up | TUC. (n.d.). Retrieved 16 January 2020, from https://www.tuc.org.uk/publications/gig
The World Is Open: How Web Technology Is Revolutionizing Education | Wiley. (n.d.). Wiley.Com. Retrieved 5 December 2020, from https://www.wiley.com/en-us/The+World+Is+Open%3A+How+Web+Technology+Is+Revolutionizing+Education-p-9781118013816
Thomas, K., & Althen, G. (1989). Counseling Foreign students. In P. B. Pederson, J. G. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling Across Culture (pp. 205–242). University of Hawaii Press.
Thornton, K., & Yoong, P. (2011). The role of the blended action learning facilitator: An enabler of learning and a trusted inquisitor. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 8(2), 129–146.
Tomich, P., McWhirter, J. J., & King, W. E. (2000). International student adaptation: Critical variables. International Education, 29(2), 37.
Toncar, M. F., Reid, J. S., & Anderson, C. E. (2006). Perceptions and preferences of study abroad: Do business students have different needs? Journal of Teaching in International Business, 17(1–2), 61–80.
Torbiörn, I. (1982). Living abroad: Personal adjustment and personnel policy in the overseas setting. John Wiley & Sons.
Toyokawa, T., & Toyokawa, N. (2002). Extracurricular activities and the adjustment of Asian international students: A study of Japanese students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(4), 363–379.
Trades Union Congress. (2017). The Gig is Up: Trade Unions Tackling Insecure Work (p. 62). Trades Union Congress. https://www.tuc.org.uk/research-analysis/reports/gig
Trehan, K., & Pedler, M. (2009). Animating critical action learning: Process-based leadership and management development. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 6(1), 35–49.
Trower, H., & Lehmann, W. (2017). Strategic escapes: Negotiating motivations of personal growth and instrumental benefits in the decision to study abroad. British Educational Research Journal, 43(2), 275–289. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3258
Truax, L. (2008). Working abroad: A qualitative study on cultural adjustments and difficulties while working with other cultures. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research, XI, 1–11.
UNESCO. (2016). Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students. http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student-flow
Van Der Zee, K. I., & Van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2000). The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire: A multidimensional instrument of multicultural effectiveness. European Journal of Personality, 14(4), 291–309.
Varonis, E. M., & Gass, S. M. (1985). Miscommunication in native/nonnative conversation. Language in Society, 14(3), 327–343.
Vermeersch, P. (2002). Ethnic mobilisation and the political conditionality of European Union accession: The case of the Roma in Slovakia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1), 83–101.
Volet, S., & Jones, C. (2012). Cultural Transitions in Higher Education: Individual Adaptation, Transformation and Engagement. In S. A. Karabenick & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Transitions Across Schools and Cultures (Vol. 17, pp. 241–284). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0749-7423(2012)0000017012
Vosko, L. F. (2006). Precarious employment: Understanding labour market insecurity in Canada. In Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada. McGill-Queen’s University Press Montreal.
Vosko, L. F., MacDonald, M., & Campbell, I. (2009). Gender and the Contours of Precarious Employment. Routledge.
Vosko, L., MacDonald, M., & Campbell, I. (2009). Introduction: Gender and the concept of precarious employment. In Gender and the Contours of Precarious Employment (pp. 1–25). Routledge.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962a). Thought and Word. MIT Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962b). Thought and word. MIT Press.
Wang, Y., Li, T., Noltemeyer, A., Wang, A., & Shaw, K. (2018). Cross-cultural Adaptation of International College Students in the United States. Journal of International Students, 8(2), 821–842. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v8i2.116
Ward, C. (1996). Acculturation. In R. Bhagat (Ed.), Handbook of intercultural training (pp. 124–147). Sage.
Ward, Colleen. (2004). Psychological theories of culture contact and their implications for intercultural training and interventions. Handbook of Intercultural Training, 3, 185–216.
Ward, Colleen, Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock.
Ward, Colleen, & Kennedy, A. (1993). Psychological and socio‐cultural adjustment during cross‐cultural transitions: A comparison of secondary students overseas and at home. International Journal of Psychology, 28(2), 129–147.
Ward, Colleen, & Kennedy, A. (1994). Acculturation strategies, psychological adjustment, and sociocultural competence during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(3), 329–343.
Ward, Colleen, & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 659–677.
Ward, Colleen, Okura, Y., Kennedy, A., & Kojima, T. (1998). The U-curve on trial: A longitudinal study of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transition. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(3), 277–291.
Ward, Colleen, & Rana-Deuba, A. (1999). Acculturation and adaptation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(4), 422–442.
Ward, Colleen, & Searle, W. (1991). The impact of value discrepancies and cultural identity on psychological and sociocultural adjustment of sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15(2), 209–224.
Weaver, G. R. (1986). Understanding and coping with cross-cultural adjustment stress. In R. M. Paige (Ed.), Cross-cultural orientation: New conceptualizations and applications. University Press of America.
Wenger, E. (1999a). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge university press.
Wenger, E. (1999b). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge university press.
Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2008). Does higher education attained abroad lead to international jobs? Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(2), 101–130.
Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2013). Degree mobility from the Nordic countries: Background and employability. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(4), 471–491.
Williams, S. M. (2010). Through the eyes of friends: An investigation of school context and cross-racial friendships in racially mixed schools. Urban Education, 45(4), 480–505.
Wood, D. F. (2003). Problem based learning. Bmj, 326(7384), 328–330.
Ye, J. (2006). Traditional and online support networks in the cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese international students in the United States. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(3), 863–876.
Yeh, C. J., & Inose, M. (2003). International students’ reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 15–28.
Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods 4th edition. United States: Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.
Ying, Y., & Liese, L. H. (1991). Emotional well-being of Taiwan students in the US: An examination of pre-to post-arrival differential. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15(3), 345–366.
Ying, Y.-W., & Liese, L. H. (1990). Initial adaptation of Taiwan foreign students to the United States: The impact of prearrival variables. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(6), 825–845.
Yoshino, K. (2006). Covering: The hidden assault on our human rights. Random House.
Yu, Y., & Moskal, M. (2019). Missing intercultural engagements in the university experiences of Chinese international students in the UK. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 49(4), 654–671. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2018.1448259
Zhou, Y., Jindal-Snape, D., Topping, K., & Todman, J. (2008). Theoretical models of culture shock and adaptation in international students in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 33(1), 63–75.
Zuber‐Skenitt, O. (1993). Improving learning and teaching through action learning and action research. Higher Education Research and Development, 12(1), 45–58.